The most common way to create an orthography for a new language was to use one's own, illustrating unfamiliar sounds with the closest familiar ones Naturally this practice distanced readers from the foreign language, the extent dependent on the differences between it and the compiler's own.
In addition, the compiler's intelligence and linguistic sophistication had a marked effect on the quality of the resultant alphabet. In this chapter, we shall discuss not all of the eleven vocabularies listed in table 3.
GREAT NAVIGATORS OF THE 18TH CENTURY.
Three English lists are presented: Anderson's and Samwell's, because of their position at the head of the chronological progression, and Campbell's, because it includes a pronunciation guide. The two remaining lists represent different languages: Spanish Quimper's and French Gaimard's , with the hope that these different languages and writing systems may show some features of Hawaiian pronunciation from a different perspective. The explorers and traders who figure in this chapter belong to two classes of alphabet innovators: the somewhat inconsistent write-it-as-I-hear-it type, and those who actually wrote Hawaiian according to some set of principles.
William Anderson, the first of the group in terms of precedence, definitely fits into the second category, although at first glance his Hawaiian words look as though they were written according to no principles at all. Hence the paradox: why did the well-trained,. Aside from Captain James Cook's own transcription of a few Hawaiian words in an English context, most of the language sample from the first visit of the expedition was collected by Anderson, the surgeon aboard the Resolution and unofficial naturalist for the expedition. Because they were both ill with tuberculosis, they did not wish to "encounter the severities of a frozen climate," but instead preferred to stay in the Society Islands.
However, as the ship progressed from one island to another, always they settled on the next as the place to remain. Why the two men continued the journey north is still unclear; John C. Beaglehole suggested that Clerke's sense of duty lay behind his procrastination with the paperwork that would have allowed him to resign his command.
Perhaps we can speculate further that Anderson might have dared the adventure with an agreeable companion, but hesitated to risk it alone.
On 21 January , three days after the expedition sighted Kaua'i, Anderson accompanied Cook and John Webber to a heiau a short distance up the Waimea River. Our guide proclamed our approach and every one whom we met fell on their faces and remained in that position till we had passed. This, as I afterwards understood, is done to their great chiefs. Our road lay in among the Plantations, which were chiefly of Tara, and sunk a little below the common level so as to contain the water necessary to nourish the roots.
As we ranged down the coast from the East in the Ships, we observed at every Village one or more elevated objects, like Pyramids and we had seen one in this vally that we were desirous of going to see.
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Our guide understood us, but as this was on the other side of the river, he conducted us to one on the same side we were upon; it proved to be in a Morai 4 which in many respects was like those of Otaheite. Unless Anderson had further contact with Hawaiians on board the Resolution , the time spent at the heiau was the extent of his work with native speakers. Although the ships stayed in the islands for a fortnight, Cook himself went ashore only on three days.
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Storms and heavy seas prevented repeated trips ashore, and on 2 February the expedition left the islands and headed north, leaving the balmy tropics for a much less hospitable climate. As a physician, Anderson was able to diagnose his own illness but not cure it. He continued to write in his journal until 3 June Beaglehole cxc , but died exactly two months later while the expedition was in the Bering Sea, off the northwest coast of America. He was twenty-eight years old. No memorial marks his resting place, for he was buried at sea.
Lawrence Island, sighted and named by Bering fifty years earlier. Cook himself has not always received high marks for his rendering of Hawaiian words. Perhaps the most negative assessment of his Polynesian spelling was that it was a "rough, inconsistent, quasi-phonetic spelling in Latin characters" Wise and Hervey However, in Cook's defense, one wonders, of course, how it could have been otherwise.
Besides, the examples that the authors cited show a greater degree of consistency than either they noticed or were willing to admit. Officially, he seems to be remembered mostly for his contributions to botany, not Hawaiian linguistics. For example, the Dictionary of National Biography p. From all accounts and these are few in number , Anderson seems to have been one of those Renaissance men that eighteenth- and nineteenth-century Britain excelled in producing. And unlike some of the naturalists on previous voyages, he was not a difficult prima donna; fellow crew members seemed to like and respect him.
The sketch of Anderson's background in chapter 3 showed that he was well trained, highly respected, and had a talent for language. Drawing from several accounts, Beaglehole treated him in more detail in different places in his volumes on Cook:. William Anderson. Anderson the patiently enthusiastic collector of vocabularies and island names.
James Cook: Celebrated North Country Explorer
He took scientific equipment of his own. A pleasant and generous person, he thought independently and was capable of criticizing a course pursued by Cook; as a day-to-day chronicler he seemed to have an instinct, as he had the range of knowledge, for supplementing Cook; in scientific observation Cook could draw on his unhesitatingly. Everybody thought highly of him; Cook had an affection for him But in spite of these accolades for his abilities, Anderson's linguistic work has, in the main, been ignored. When it has been noticed, it has generally been criticized. In a sense repeating Abel Tasman's and others' difficulties in using Iacob Le Maire's word list of , some of the visitors to Hawai'i in the first two decades of the s registered their frustration in trying to communicate with the Hawaiian vocabularies they had at hand.
Rose de Freycinet told of her difficulties Bassett :. The vocabularies of the Sandwich Islands language that we had with us were so inaccurate, and the spelling so little adjusted to our system of pronunciation, that it was almost impossible to make ourselves understood other than by signs. He suggested that the difficulties existed translated from Rossel Islands were most often words mispronounced by the English themselves and repeated by the islanders with a sign of approval, which could have made them believe that they could understand each other.
As for modern appraisals, the writers of a study of the development of the Hawaiian spelling system Wise and Hervey discussed Cook's own spelling of the Hawaiian words that were scattered through his description, and that of several of his officers, but failed to mention either Anderson or his word list. When his orthography was finally treated at length Hervey , it was almost totally misinterpreted.
In short, Anderson's linguistic work has been neglected for the past two centuries. One might propose that the role of a historian can be compared to that of a director or a stage manager. Even if the plot and the cast of characters can seldom be altered, the focus can. Compared with the rest of Cook's officers and scientists, Anderson was rarely in the center of the narration, outshone by the brilliant if harsh light of such characters as the difficult Johann Reinhold Forster.
To those of us familiar with modern written Hawaiian, one of the first things that strikes us about Anderson's list is that t and r are written regularly.
This practice is discussed in the next chapter. There are a number of other differences as well, especially in the use of vowels. For example, the common word hele 'go' was written as haire and Pele as paire ; he i'a 'fish' as haieea ; he niu 'coconut' as eeneeoo ; au 'I' as ou; and he ihu 'nose' as eeeheu, with the unusual sequence of three e s. Wesley D. Hervey wrote that although Anderson gave no guide to the orthography he used, it was possible to reconstruct one.
He went on to list such a system, one that bears little resemblance to Hawaiian. Even fairly consistent relation-. Tables, included to show a variety of Anderson's spelling conventions, reflect little basic knowledge of Hawaiian grammar and linguistic history. He continued: "It is just possible that a shift from [t] to [k] did not constitute a phonemic change.
Even with an understanding of Hawaiian phonology and a rudimentary knowledge of Hawaiian grammar, one still finds problems with Anderson's transcription. However, most of this confusion vanishes when the Hawaiian list is examined not in isolation, but as a part of Anderson's total work, and with the knowledge that he was unable to advise the editor or printer about the conventions he used.
The published version omitted Cook's introduction, which is quoted at the beginning of this chapter. In these rules, Anderson took the contemporary approach to orthography: he proceeded from spelling to sound. The consonants, it seems, were self-evident. The problems that belie this assumption are discussed in chapter 5. Although it is impossible to be sure what Anderson's own pronunciation of English was like the situation is complicated by the two variables of geographical dialect and time , table 4. It allows us to see that Anderson used eleven separate vowels and combinations of vowels to represent eight sounds in Tahitian: five vowels and three diphthongs.
Anderson's diacritical conventions are as follows. The first, illustrated in the table: italics here reflect what was in the original manuscript: a ligature joining two vowels, indicating that they were to be pronounced as "one simple sound. Accent was marked before the syllable in question.
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Finally, a comma between parts of a word, especially reduplicated portions, represented a "rest or small space of time," but not a "full stop. In the Tahitian list, the diacritics were preserved 16 through the printing. However, in the Hawaiian list, which is without any such modifications, one of two things must have happened: either the diacritics were discarded by Anderson himself, or they were used in his manuscript but lost in the printing process.
Having noticed other instances in which information was lost or confused in the transition from manuscript to printed page, I tend to favor the second explanation. The following examples may serve as possible evidence that this is indeed what happened. Note "eeeheu" ihu 'The nose'. Would Anderson have written "eee" as such? It is unlikely. In his directions for pronouncing Tahitian,.