Aztecs sacrificed the control sexuality, this dissertation ultimately suggests that studying the vampire motif in Latin American narrative fiction can enhance our understanding of Latin America. Representations of the vampire in Latin American narrative demonstrate how, "divested of its supernatural trappings, the motif of the vampire becomes a metaphor for spiritual [and physical] violation, for transgression against the personal integrity of another" Klenman Babener viii. The vampire is "one of [humankind's oldest horror images. Twitchell, Dreadful , , , ; its applicability to the socio-cultural process is due to its movement in time from horrific beast to an image of popular culture reflecting "the mythopoetic process in general.
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The vampire has been represented in Latin American literature, film, and drama as a "multifaceted metaphor for the dark regions of the human mind, for the sexual tensions underlying modern life, for the primal fears and potent hearts of prisoners to the sun in the belief that their blood fed the sun's continuing energy" When discussing the vampire in Latin American literature, several critics notice the importance of outside influences such as Bram Stoker's Dracula and echo Twitchell's idea of the continuity of the vampire. Owen Aldridge dismisses any association of "the Vampire theme [with the Hispanic world].
Margo Glantz admits that the vampire is incorporated into Latin American literature "a su manera, conservando bajo la apariencia de algo muy distinto los viejos simbolos utilizados dentro de rituales de nueva representacion" Glantz, "La metamorfosis Nestor Cazzaniga cites several sources-"las advertencias de los predicadores medievales acerca de las brujas y de todo un mundo de seres demoniacos" Cazzaniga 9 ; Francis Ford Coppola's recent film Bram Stoker's Dracula see Coppola and Hart ; and a "reciente y exitosa comedia musical argentina de Pepe Cibrian" Cazzaniga 9 -and concludes, as does Twitchell, that "el tema de los vampiros.
For example, although Julio Cortazar does not publish works specifically about vampires, the Argentine author "is thoroughly acquainted with the numerous nosferati preceding and following Bram Stoker's illustrious Count Chosen from the considerable corpus of Latin American literature about vampires discussed in chapter two, this dissertation examines six contemporary Latin American narratives with different vampires.
The works examined listed here in chronological order are: El vampiro by Froylan Turcios; El general Behevidas. This project is the first attempt to discuss the vampire in Latin American literature, a task that has been completed in American, English, French, and German literatures.
Each analysis poses the following questions: What are the manifestations of the vampire in the text? How different is the vampire in these texts than from its portrayal in other literatures? To what extent does the recurrent use of the vampire figure in Latin American literature express social, political, and cultural conflicts?
How does each vampire compare to other vampires in Latin American narrative? The narratives examined in this dissertation show that many "artists. The six texts chosen for analysis in this dissertation have received little critical attention yet have been written by authors who, for the most part, are well known in Latin America. As chapter two points out, in almost every decade of the twentieth century Latin Americans have published a vampire story or produced a film with vampire characters. According to David William Foster, in Latin American literary studies there is "the need to expand the parameter of criticism beyond.
The writers examined in this dissertation appear seldom or not at all in "official and institutional" histories of contemporary Latin American narrative Lindstrom. Since the six novels offer innovative interpretations of the vampire myth, their presence here indicates that questioning the canon in literary and cultural studies is necessary. During the s and s, a prolific time for many Latin American writers, "the upheavals in public education. This dissertation examines works that have been overlooked by critics but that continually reshape and formulate the vampire motif in differing ways.
The driving force behind popular literature and myth are images such as the vampire that keep appearing in many different forms; "all narrative that pleases does so precisely because it is informed by powerful and important archetypes and myths" Irons xiv. As an expression of human anxiety about sexuality, the vampire figure is defined less by its sexual orientation than by its presence as a being with a strong sexual impulse and drive.
Many manifestations of the vampire figure in literature place vampire and victim in a heterosexual framework in which the male vampire pursues the female victim, an action that identifies male- female sexuality as the dominant paradigm for sexual activity.
For example, one critic links vampirism to the "undead" images of survivors of AIDS, assumed by many to be a homosexual disease, but nonetheless admits the heterosexuality of the vampire image: "From Bela Lugosi to John Holmes, Frank Langella to Count Chocula, the Dracula image has been heterosexualized and domesticated to sell everything from breakfast cereal. Writing with reference to Bram Stoker's novel, Mark Jancovich indicates a clear parallel between the vampire's meditated attack and a highly-charged sexual modus operandi: "He [Count Dracula] invades the bourgeois home, the bedchamber, the body, and finally, the will.
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It is for this reason that while he converts the free subject into a slave who is compelled to act according to his [Dracula's] will, the manner of his attack is clearly sexual" Jancovich The attraction to the sexual acts of the vampire figure is also based on the reader's heightened identification with the tenuous distinction between imagined sexuality and real sex that vampire narratives blur: "the ironic thing about vampire sexuality is that, for its overt peculiarity, it is in many ways very like human sexuality, but human sexuality in which the psychological or metaphoric becomes physical or literal" Stevenson In his book The Fantastic: A Structural Approach to a Literary Genre , Tzvetan Todorov identifies the vampire figure as a component of the "theme of the other" that involves sexuality.
Central to Todorov's classification of the "other" within the literature of the fantastic are its themes of "excessive sensuality" , those actions which "will be more readily accepted by any censor if they are attributed to the devil" Todorov or to, as this dissertation suggests, the vampire figure in literature. The fascination with the "peculiar" sexuality of the vampire character in literature and film springs from the wider attraction of sexuality in literature. As one critic puts it, "'Sexuality' is the stake and the purpose, the constant wager of the representation [in the novel], over a scale of variations that runs from the elemental Because of the increasingly more "open" positions of women in societal structures such as the workplace and the home, the same critic cited above notes that in the late twentieth century "many of the nineteenth- 10 century terms [regarding sexuality] have shifted, and this especially in connection with 'sexual liberation,' 'the sexual revolution,' leading to various adjustments and rearrangements in the overall representation" of sexuality in literature Heath, "'While Millicent.
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Feminist literary criticism produced by and about Latin American women writers emphasizes the all- encompassing aspect of discourse that "incluye, ordena y afirma una serie de elementos a base de excluir, y asi, negar otros. An awareness of, or to use Gonzalez Stephan's term, a consciousness of the vampire motif in Latin American literature propels the "adjustments and rearrangements" that Heath mentions as well as "la diferenciacidn generica 11 que subyace en la dialectica del discurso sexual" of Morello-Frosch with respect to the "textualization" of sexuality within a discourse that, as Gonzalez Stephan indicates, marginalizes, excludes, and negates.
Since the vampire figure does not necessarily remain within a heterosexual paradigm of sexual activity, differing components of sexuality serve as incitements to discourse that critics thematically tie to the vampire figure. While placing "unnatural sex" within the historical push toward a closer scientific scrutiny of sexuality, Vern Bullough refers to nonprocreative sexuality as essentially vampiric in nature because it "was worse than almost any other disease for it constantly drained off the vital body fluids and gradually took away life itself.
Every loss of semen was regarded as equivalent to the loss of 4 ounces of blood Sexual deviance, "unnatural" sex, or any "straying from the norm" of reproductive heterosexuality is often associated with negative manifestations of homosexuality yet early religious sources do not define sexuality that is not strictly heterosexual, that is, not male-female. Although one theologian, St. Albertus Magnus , uses the word sodomy "as [sex practiced by] male with male or female with female" Bullough and Bullough 34 , he explicitly defines the act of sodomy not as homosexual but rather in a fashion that strongly suggests vampirism that appears in the novels examined in this dissertation: " 1 it proceeded from a burning frenzy that subverted the order of nature; 2 the sin was distinguished by its disgusting 12 foulness; 3 individuals who became addicted to such vices seldom succeeded in freeing themselves; and 4 such vices were contagious and spread rapidly from one to another" Bullough and Bullough Magnus describes sodomy more as an object of study than one of rejection, similar to the way Foucault notes that the examination and pursuit of sodomy exposed it rather than pushed it into hiding: the "machinery of power Whether or not the subject is sodomy, the six novels in this dissertation demonstrate that the variable sexuality in Latin American vampire narratives produces a visible presence in the wider realm of contemporary Latin American narrative fiction: these authors bring sexuality into a reality that "is especially silent about sexual themes" Foster, Gay and Lesbian.
Volume One. Michel Foucault underscores sexual discourse as an historical product of and coexistent with other voices of power that attempt to repress it: "The affirmation of a sexuality These writers attempt to explore the discourse of human sexuality through the idea of the confession that allowed such discourses to proliferate and yet remain a part of a repressed society. This dissertation shows that the concept of confession about sexuality may be applied to Latin American vampire narratives that present the subversiveness of vampire stories.
Sylvia Molloy points out that, similar to the imposition of the Victorian framework onto Western sexuality that Foucault supports as the current cause for the silence of sexual discourse 4 , turn-of-the-century Latin American writers enter a modern era that is capable of classifying people, things, and discourses from the "normative" point of view that "is arrived at, and indeed derives from, the gender and sexual differences that purportedly deviate from it— in 3 This idea is developed by Foucault in his The History of Sexuality: An Introduction.
Foucault establishes the confession about sex as follows: "the dissemination and reinforcement of heterogeneous sexualities Yet Foucault emphasizes that the counterdiscourse about sex serves as a discourse about the sexuality that has been silenced: the legal-medico-judicial restraints aimed at controlling perverse sexuality in fact bring these sexualities into view as indicated above about sodomy.
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Thus, as contemporary Latin American vampire novels of the twentieth century imply, "normative" discourses of sexuality are set up while at the same time destabilized through the exploration of alternative, different, or deviant sexualities as a way of commenting on "normal" sexual practices. Sexuality is a contemporary issue that theorists attempt to define outside of Latin American literary circles as well. Gayle Rubin observes that human sexuality today has become the target of oppressive measures because of its wider variety.
Supporting Michel Foucault's idea that sexuality is a social construct and therefore a social system, 5 Rubin explores how sexuality needs to be taken less seriously as an object of discourse rather than a subject of discourse. Like Foucault, Rubin sees that sexuality "is organized into systems of power, which reward and encourage some individuals and activities, while punishing and suppressing others" Rubin For Rubin, the mystified nature of sexuality in many societies produces battles about sexuality that are "highly symbolic.
Sexual activities often function as signifiers for personal and social apprehensions to which they As a different critic notes, Foucault's work on sexuality "teaches that sexual norms, and more radically the perceptual and other cognitive distinctions that we make in regard to sex, do not come from nature but instead express the values of influential social groups political [and] professional The crackdown on non-traditional sexualities adds a vampire-like quality to sexuality as it "is rationalized by portraying them as menaces to health and safety, women and children, national security, the family, or civilization itself" Rubin Such omissions provide crucial information about the sexual identity of de la Parra in a way that parallels Foucault's idea of alternative sexualities as "hidden" discourses.
In the six narratives examined in this dissertation the vampire figure destabilizes heterosexuality while "grasp[ing] sexuality as the site of varied and heterogeneous determinations, with sexual difference too then understood in those terms: as social production, human reality, individual articulation all at once, in interaction" Heath, "The Ethics The presence of the vampire figure in these narratives allows narrative discourse to subvert "traditional" systems of sexual behavior by undermining the expectations of heterosexuality within narrative explorations of and about sexuality in Latin American fiction of the twentieth century.
Each novel presents challenging ideas about sexuality in Latin American society by first establishing a central sexual conflict and then destabilizing the foundation s on which the sexuality rests by introducing socio-political as well as personal conflicts that textualize sexuality. Just as Foucault's examination of the discourse s of sexuality brings to light its power as a 17 product of social, political, and authoritative discourses throughout history, sexuality in these six narratives reveals truths of Latin American society in the same fashion: "La sexualidad se deforma y exhibe sus rostros monstruosos para dar testimonio de los males de una sociedad, es decir, del determinismo social, de la violencia, de la frustracion, de la corrupcion y de la hipocresia" Caro The omission of lesser known works such as the novels examined in this dissertation constitutes a serious problem for the appreciation of all varieties of Latin American literature that need to gain recognition as important contributions within as well as without the "canon.
While the celebration of such figures may serve as a focus for cultural pride, it can also tend to silent divergent or dissident readings" Smith and Bergmann 3. It is important to note that this collection of essays includes an article about Alejandra Pizarnik's La condesa 18 sangriflnta , 6 an otherwise infrequently critiqued text within Latin American literary studies that focuses on the bloodlust of the important historical figure Elizabeth Bathory.
The six novels presented in this dissertation appear seldom if at all in histories of Latin American narrative fiction but because of the confession of sexuality in each of these texts as well as the incorporation of vampire figures, they are examples of what Lindstrom identifies as "innovative fiction[s,]. Their appearance in this dissertation adds to the general history of Latin American literature that, according to Lindstrom, "require[s] continual adjustment of critical concepts originally designed to characterize those literatures whose dominance was long established" Queer Re adings.
Hispanic Writings, eds. Emilie L. The narratives uphold the notion of confession as a discourse between sexual bodies as well as social bodies: the complex human relationships that each narrative presents are as much a product of sex as they are of political and social interaction. As Alicia Puleo defines it, sexuality in narratives such as these is "una modalidad de relacion con el propio cuerpo y con los otros que se acompaha de un rol socialmente establecido que condiciona nuestra percepcibn de los otros y de nosotros mismos" Puleo 1 8.
This dissertation surveys the presence of sexuality in six contemporary Latin American narratives from Modernism 7 to the present. As Alfred MacAdam notes, "Spanish American Modernismo must not be confused with the twentieth-century avant-garde movement of the same name in Brazil, and neither has any relationship with the currently fashionable term 'modernism,' a catch-all term for avant-garde movements in general" 4. The Spanish American modernista movement became "fully evident during the s Distinct from Anglo- American and Brazilian uses of the term, modernismo in Latin American literature refers to what Naomi Lindstrom sees as "a response to the contemporary situation of the [Latin American] region" Lindstrom In order to define the term, I cite her definition in its entirety: "Modernists were closely attentive to tendencies in French- and English-language literatures and referred with pride to European influences on their writing.
Understandably, they have been accused of disdain for their Spanish American heritage. Here, too, the issues are complex. While modernists drew upon other literatures, these borrowings were thoroughly, and inevitably, transformed" Lindstrom Generally speaking, Latin American modernism begins in the s and lasts through the end of the first decade of the twentieth century. What is the aberrant sexual activity to which Shaw refers and how is it expressed in the Spanish American novel?
With occasional reference to the ideas of Michel Foucault about the historical manifestation of sexuality, this dissertation attempts to uncover the answers to these questions through the figure of the vampire in Latin American narrative fiction of the twentieth century. Foucault argues that for approximately three centuries the repression of a discourse of sexuality not only creates more discussion about the topic but in addition multiplies the voices of sexuality because of the same restrictions: "since the end of the sixteenth century, the 'putting into discourse of sex,' far from undergoing a process of restriction, on the contrary has been subjected to a mechanism of increasing incitement;.
If Foucault supports on the one hand the examination of sexuality, he maintains on the other that "literary discourse has been slow to appropriate 21 sexuality or to create sexual desire With the appearance of the printing press and the generation of mass media forms that follows, written texts become a public domain in which the expression of ideas and beliefs about sex proliferates yet remains carefully watched and monitored: "in sexuality, as in penality, a moral discourse is consolidated and displaced by practices and modes of thought that construct norms and impose them as respectable, natural, or normal" During Thus, an ideological battle over sexuality begins to differentiate between what is acceptable and what is inadmissible sexuality.
Beginning with the late nineteenth and early twentieth century, Latin America undergoes the change to modernity, a shift that Latin American modernista writers attempt to portray in literature with a "break with bourgeois convention" Molloy, "Too Wilde Yet there is a disquiet and suspicious feeling at the same time about the sudden appearance of a discourse about sexuality that Molloy identifies as "the paranoid construction of gender and sexual norm, and of gender and sexual difference" Molloy, "Too Wilde In order to ease the transition into the twentieth century, Latin American writers use the vampire motif to represent what Molloy and Shaw point to as uncertain sexuality, for "The [vampire] monster always represents the disruption of categories, the destruction of boundaries, and 22 the presence of impurities" within discourses assumed to be pure and innocent Halberstam Unsettling and ultimately critical about sexuality, Bram Stoker's novel Dracula is a work that is considered by many to be the.
As Margaret L. Carter points out, vampirism in literature is of all kinds and should not be limited to prescribed actions: "Not all legendary vampires drink blood; some consume other human products, while some spread death by their proximity. Moreover, an undead revenant may conform to vampire guidelines in other respects while not preying on people at all. Vampirism is not restricted to the media of literature or film but a pervasive presence in advertising, food labels, and children's television shows. Vampirism and the vampire figure provide close parallels with human behavior, and the popularity of the vampire figure is a reflection of how the vampire myth and human behavior with all "its component actions conform to some timeless design, classically the battle between good and evil that transcends immediate historical interests and dilemmas" Glover In response to the fact that contemporary Latin America is a fusion of foreign and indigenous cultures, two critics have noted how popular culture, "according to common usage in Latin America, evokes the possibility of alternatives to currently dominant cultural patterns" Rowe and Schelling 23 that decide and control how information is transmitted.
Rowe and Schelling indicate three points regarding the formation of Latin American popular culture and its transmission: the influence of older forms of mass media they cite the tfilennvela and the folletin as two examples , the active role of the receiving public, and the potential for a change of meaning, or "resignification" Rowe and Shelling of established meanings or forms. Vampire stories use a variety of expositional techniques: the plethora of narrative types such as phonograph recordings, newspaper clippings, diary entries in Bram Stoker's novel also appears in Latin American novels about vampires to demonstrate that within the vampire story "the mass media have brought about a process of hybridization whereby cultural signs flow across social, ethnic and nation-state boundaries, and the notion of high culture as a separate sphere becomes impossible" Rowe and Schelling In vampirism, a relationship of dependency is pervasive: "The vampire motif always has something to do with the idea of being, or way of being, that literally lives off another" Dyer, "Dracula and Desire" Vampires can operate without the full knowledge of the victim.
Vampirism is "the draining of blood, the frequently slow loss of vitality and of life itself, most 24 commonly without the victim's knowledge" Luhr Vampirism implies an imbalance of power since its "emphasis is upon an unequal relationship and inevitably upon cruelty-thus, the evil vampire whose power over his prey is both extraordinary and cruel" Gordon, "Rehabilitating Revenants. Yet from within the confines of a restrictive dependence-independence paradigm of power surges a significant fusion, a relationship that fosters mutual understanding.
In Latin America, the intermixing of popular cultural forms is the way "en que los distintos grupos sociales y actores politicos han conferido significado a los sectores subalternos o bajos de nuestra sociedad" Adrianzen Similar to how mass media permeates Latin American culture and brings disparate groups closer together through various channels of distribution, vampirism portrays an invasion of human space in different forms that allows for reconfigurations, a redistribution of meaning as Rowe and Schelling indicate above.
Many sources differ as to the origin of vampirism in world literature, but when Augustin Calmet published a treatise on vampires in , this document indicated how "El vampirismo invadio las bibliotecas, los talleres de impresidn, los salones y hasta los dormitorios. Todo ello crey6 una psicosis. In other words, with this document and others like it, vampirism became part of the public consciousness that had ignored it as a sign of irrationality with the belief "que una tradicion tan 25 compleja no es mas que un producto de la ignorancia, carente de todo contacto con hechos reales, tampoco es una actitud adecuada a la hora de analizar creencias populares que tambien forman parte de la historia" Cazzaniga Vampirism occurs in contemporary novels in an assortment of ways.
Human behavior serves as a basis for vampirism and this can be seen in most renditions of vampirism in texts.
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His favorite tactic was to attack at night, causing confusion and terror, and then retreat, carrying away prisoners to be impaled" Holte For some, Count Dracula is the prototypical vampire of fiction, but Stoker's inclusion of extensive research into Eastern European history in his novel reveals strong parallels between fiction and reality. David Glover sees a contemporary fascination and attraction to the vampire myth as a product of the novel Dracula 's "confusion of temporalities in which ancient folktales, medieval legends, and modern obsessions may all be instantaneously present, coalescing with horrifying effect" Glover Stoker adeptly develops a composite vampire made up of real as well as conjectural elements in his rendition of the vampire myth: "Stoker 26 constructed, from many sources, an immensely persuasive hybrid: a nightmare capable of unearthing the unconscious terrors of his own time" Sinclair The French philosopher Jean-Jacques Rousseau defended Calmet's publication about vampirism and argued that beliefs in vampires and their behavior "revealed much about the nature of authority in civilized society" Frayling Rousseau's point is that "the relations between vampires and their prey are an extremely potent symbol for characterizing even the ordinary ties of dependence that bind individuals together in civilized society" Frayling Rousseau's classification of vampirism reverberates into the twentieth century Latin American novel.
For Rousseau as for contemporary Latin American authors who use vampirism in their narratives, the vampire image provides "a vivid means of symbolizing modes of mutual dependence in society which were not benign.
Monstruo de America draws history into the realm of fiction as Stoker did in Dracula , but with the difference that the sexuality of the persons exploited by the tyrannical regime of Bebevidas explicitly suffers: Luis Gonzalez and Julia de Solonio struggle to maintain their affair, itself a hybrid of Julia's divorce-by-death and Luis's undying loyalty to fighting the dictatorship. Classifying the vampire is nonetheless difficult because of the multitude of variations: "es tan dificil dar una descripcidn exacta [de los vampiros] por la variedad de leyendas orales y reales" Gordon, El gran libro.
A common feature that authors tend to highlight about the vampire is its mysterious, perilous, and yet attractive sexual behavior; James Twitchell sums this idea up, revealing the strong, sensual potential found in vampires: "on the one hand, the vampire is bad, sucking what he should not be sucking, being sexual where he should not be; yet it is all somehow very alluring" Twitchell, "The Vampire Myth" The vampire provides many appealing traits as a literary character, but "although the vampire takes from his victim to feed his hunger, it is as if he is satisfying a hunger in his audience-a hunger for sexuality and sensuality, a desire to live forever.
The hesitation between fear and safety is a common reaction to the vampire figure: "Worship or identification, pity or revulsion? The long life of the vampire idea resides in just such various possibilities" Dyer, "Dracula and Desire" 10 that continue with each interpretation. The vampire reveals more about sexual behavior than extended life: "they have supernatural power and they are sexier than just about anyone around. They also force us to look into certain mirrors of reality that we normally avoid" Mathews Not all believe, however, including Stoker that the vampire is sexually alluring.