Le M eur eds. Boltanski , L.
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Broch -D ue , V. Chauveau , J. Chauveau et al.
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- Croissance de la population et dynamique du peuplement au Sénégal depuis l'indépendance.
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Doevenspeck , M. Dunglas , E. Eboussi Boulaga , F. Edja , H. Bierschenk , P. Fjeldstad , O. Greene , S. Gudeman , S. Community, Market, and Culture , London, Blackwell. Guyer , J. Heilbrunn , J. Hirschman , A.
Hosteint , L. Hugon , P. Jacob , J. Le M eur dir. Juul , K. Comaroff eds. Kelsall , T. Kohnert , D. The publication should appeal to demographers, sociologists, economists, cognitive scientists and anyone interested in understanding how critical life choices are made. Model-Based Demography.
Late in a career of more than sixty years, Thomas Burch, an internationally known social demographer, undertook a wide-ranging methodological critique of demography. This volume contains a selection of resulting papers, some previously unpublished, some published but not readily accessible [from past meetings of The International Union for the Scientific Study of Population and its research committees, or from other small conferences and seminars]. Rejecting the idea that demography is simply a branch of applied statistics, his work views it as an autonomous and complete scientific discipline.
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When viewed from the perspective of modern philosophy of science, specifically the semantic or model-based school, demography is a balanced discipline, with a rich body of techniques and data, but also with more and better theories than generally recognized. This book shows how demography can build a strong theoretical edifice on its broad and deep empirical foundation by adoption of the model-based approach to science.
But the full-fruits of this approach will require demographers to make greater use of computer modeling [both macro- and micro-simulation], in the statement and manipulation of theoretical ideas, as well as for numerical computation. This book examines the promises as well as the challenges the demographic dividend brings to sub-Saharan Africa as fertility rates in the region fall and the labor force grows.
It offers a detailed analysis of what conditions must be met in order for the region to take full economic advantage of ongoing population dynamics. As the book makes clear, the region will need to accelerate reforms to cope with its demographic transition, in particular the decline of fertility. The continent will need to foster human capital formation through renewed efforts in the areas of education, health and employment.
This will entail a true vision and determination on the part of African leaders and their development partners. The book will help readers to gain solid knowledge of the demographic trends and provide insights into socioeconomic policies that eventually might lead sub-Saharan Africa into a successful future. Since the s there has been a continual engagement with the history and the place of western medicine in colonial settings and non-western societies.
In relation to South Asia, research on the role of medicine has focussed primarily on regions under direct British administration.
The authors map developments in public health and psychiatry, the emergence of specialised medical institutions, the influence of western medicine on indigenous medical communities and their patients and the interaction between them. The book also analyses British medical policies and the Indian reactions and initiatives they evoked in different Indian states. It offers new insights into the interplay of local adaptations with global exchanges between different national schools of thought in the formation of what is often vaguely, and all too simply, referred to as 'western' or 'colonial' medicine.
It presents the political and social frameworks of ART, and its impact in different countries. In the context of social pressure to conceive — particularly for women — this collection explores the effect of the development of ARTs, growing globalisation and reproductive medicalization on societies.
Furthermore, this book analyses ART inequalities, commonalities, and specificities in various countries, regions and on the transnational scene. From a multidisciplinary perspective and drawing on multisite studies, it highlights some new issues relating to ART e. When addressing the factors shaping HIV prevention programs in sub-Saharan Africa, it is important to consider the role of family planning programs that preceded the epidemic. In this book, Rachel Sullivan Robinson argues that both globally and locally, those working to prevent HIV borrowed and adapted resources, discourses, and strategies used for family planning.
Specifically, historical and existing relationships with outside actors, the nature of nongovernmental organizations, and perceptions of previous interventions strongly structured later health interventions through processes of path dependence and policy feedback. This book will be of great use to scholars and practitioners interested in global health, international development, African studies and political science.
Fifty years had gone by since the CISH XIst World Congress in Stockholm , when historians took the first tentative initiatives to create a wholly new interdisciplinary commission for historical demography, a meeting place for a budding discipline where researchers in letters and science could meet, exchange ideas, cultivate and develop a new field.
This book is the outcome of that decision. Demography, past, present and future is a common concern for all inhabitants of this planet. The variation is great, however, with regard to sources, social and political conditions, state of the art, technological development, national and local initiatives. In the course of half a century many changes take place.
Keeping abreast of the gigantic streams of information and innovation in the field is demanding, even more so for a discipline with global dimensions and ambitions. The book makes fascinating reading, and preparing it has been a rewarding and thought provoking experience. The thirty-seven articles in the book represent as many different stories.
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To this end, the authors based their study on the perceptions of teenagers as well as the views of institutional agents who work in their neighborhoods about the factors that contribute to perpetuate the transition to maternity in adolescence. The project was based on a mixed design combining qualitative and quantitative techniques, focusing on two neighborhoods of the capital city with high levels of Unsatisfied Basic Needs.
This book presents recent efforts and new approaches to improve our understanding of the evolution of health and mortality in urban environments in the long run, looking at transformation and adaptations during the process of rapid population growth. In a world characterized by large and rapidly evolving urban environments, the past and present challenges cities face is one of the key topics in our society. Cities are a world of differences and, consequently, of inequalities. At the same time cities remain, above all, the spaces of interactions among a variety of social groups, the places where poor, middle-class, and wealthy people, as well as elites, have coexisted in harmony or tension.
Urban areas also form specific epidemiological environments since they are characterized by population concentration and density, and a high variety of social spaces from wealthy neighborhoods to slums. Inversely and coherently, cities develop answers in terms of sanitary policies and health infrastructures.
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This balance between risk and protective factors is, however, not at all constant across time and space and is especially endangered in periods of massive demographic growth, particularly periods of urbanization mainly led by immigration flows that transform both the socioeconomic and demographic composition of urban populations and the morphological nature of urban environments. Therefore this book is an unique contribution in which present day and past socio-demographic and health challenges confronted by big urban environments are combined. Hardcover : ISBN Decades of research on human fertility has presented a clear picture of how fertility varies, including its dramatic decline over the last two centuries in most parts of the world.
Why fertility varies, both between and within populations, is not nearly so well understood. Fertility is a complex phenomenon, partly physiologically and partly behaviourally determined, thus an interdisciplinary approach is required to understand it. Evolutionary demographers have focused on human fertility since the s. The first wave of evolutionary demographic research made major theoretical and empirical advances, investigating variation in fertility primarily in terms of fitness maximization.
Research focused particularly on variation within high-fertility populations and small-scale subsistence societies and also yielded a number of hypotheses for why fitness maximization seems to break down as fertility declines during the demographic transition. A second wave of evolutionary demography research on fertility is now underway, paying much more attention to the cultural and psychological mechanisms underpinning fertility. It is also engaging with the complex, multi-causal nature of fertility variation, and with understanding fertility in complex modern and transitioning societies.
Here, we summarize the history of evolutionary demographic work on human fertility, describe the current state of the field, and suggest future directions. It offers a systematic, comparative approach that will help readers to better understand the changing social and regional recomposition of the population in these regions.